PPP 模式给农村互助养老制度带来新的发展路径。 以新制度主义理论视角,基于强制性、规范 性和认知性三个方面进行中德 PPP 模式制度环境的对比,探索中国农村互助型 PPP 养老制度的建设策 略。 就德国而言,联邦政府在“多代屋”建设中实施了适宜的政策与法律法规,其社会资本与人民也积极 参与“多代屋”的建设,进而形成先进的互助养老制度。 农村互助型 PPP 养老制度的建设在中国仍处于 起步阶段,相关政策和法律法规尚不完善,社会资本的积极性和农村居民的互助养老意识也有待提高。 综合中德的对比分析,提出优化政策和法律环境、拓宽融资渠道、创新公私风险共担机制、普及数字化养 老生活等建议,促进中国农村互助型 PPP 养老制度的发展。
The PPP model brings a new development path to the rural mutual-aid system for the elderly. From the perspective of the new institutionalism theory, this paper compares the institutional environment of the PPP model between China and Germany from three aspects of mandatory, normative and cognitive features, and explores the construction strategy of the PPP system for the elderly based on mutual-aid in rural China. As far as Germany is concerned, the federal government has implemented appropriate policies, laws and regulations in the construction of “multi-generation house”, and its social capital and people also actively participate in the construction of “multi-generation house”, thus forming an advanced mutual-aid system for the elderly. The construction of the rural mutual-aid PPP system for the elderly is still in the initial stage in China, and relevant policies, laws, and regulations are not yet perfected. The enthusiasm of social capital and the awareness of mutualaid of rural residents also need to be improved. Based on the comparative analysis between China and Germany, this paper puts forward some suggestions, such as optimizing policy and legal environment, broadening financing channels, innovating public-private risk sharing mechanism, and popularizing digital old-age life, so as to promote the development of China’s rural PPP system for the elderly with mutual assistance.