选取 10 个教育发达国家流入中国的高素质人才数和中国 30 个省市 2001—2015 年面板数据, 实证分析海外智力流入对中国的技术溢出效应和扩散路径。 结果表明:海外智力流入对中国技术创新的 作用具有显著的正效应,且外籍人才流入的技术溢出效应比海归的作用显著。 海外智力流入主要通过增 值的人力资本、智力投资激励和人才关系网络等三条路径实现技术溢出。 在分区样本分析中,海外智力 流入对西部技术创新作用更显著,而在东部和中部的技术溢出效应不显著。 自我研发投入对创新产出作 用十分显著,且创新产出弹性最大。 因此,中国要继续扩大科技、文化和教育的国际交流与合作,鼓励海 外智力流入,特别引导人才流入西部地区。
The number of high-quality talents flowing into China from 10 education developed countries and the panel data of 30 provinces and cities in China from 2001 to 2015 are selected to empirically analyze the technology spillover effect and diffusion path of overseas intellectual inflow to China. The results show that the inflow of overseas talents has a significant positive effect on China’ s technological innovation, and the technological spillover effect of the inflow of foreign talents is more significant than that of returnees. The inflow of overseas talents mainly realizes technology spillover through three paths: value-added human capital, intellectual investment incentives, and talent relationship network. In the regional sample analysis, the inflow of overseas talents has a more significant effect on technological innovation in western China, while the technological spillover effect in eastern and central China is not significant. Self-R&D investment has a significant effect on innovation output, and innovation output is the most elastic. Therefore, China should continue to expand international exchanges and cooperation in science, technology, culture, and education, encourage the inflow of overseas intellectuals, and especially guide the flow of talents into the western region.