The vigorous development of the digital economy has not only changed people’s production and lifestyles, but also created opportunities for the intelligent upgrading of high-tech industries. The high-tech industries improve production efficiency through intelligent upgrades, thereby enhancing their export competitiveness. Based on the panel data of the provinces in the Yangtze River Economic Belt from 2007 to 2018, this paper constructs a spatial Dubin model, and analyzes the spatial spillover effect of digital economic development on the export competitiveness of high-tech industries in the Yangtze River Economic Belt. The results show that digital input, digital output, and digital environment have a positive spillover effect on the overall improvement of the export competitiveness of high-tech industries in the Yangtze River Economic Belt. The digital environment is the main factor affecting the export competitiveness of high-tech industries, and the advantage of geographical proximity of the digital input has not yet been fully utilized. Therefore, the Yangtze River Economic Belt should continue to increase digital investment and increase the radiating and leading role of digital investment.