从脱贫户获得感维度检验中国脱贫的实践效应。通过对广东省48 村1 518 已脱贫农户的调查研究,发现其家庭人均年收入持续增长且比已知脱贫收入线显著偏高,产业扶贫对收入增长的作用显著;脱贫户基于家庭劳动力人数、老人数和学生子女数等客观需求,多数自觉获得了体现客观机会获得的脱贫政策福利;脱贫户拥有较高的获得感,并没因调查个体的人口特征而存在差异,其显著地与客观需求呈负相关,与客观获得呈正相关,需求既定时客观获得增加,则获得感会显著提升,这意味着新时代基于需求-获得-满足的精准扶贫逻辑具有实践效应。在客观获得确定而需求增加时,获得感会显著偏低,收入的影响作用最大。因此,后脱贫时代需要继续推进乡村产业发展,加强对劳动力的职业技能培训和乡村教育扶持力度,从外部基础、成人主体内在动力和代际发展潜力来保障和提升脱贫成效的持续性。
This paper examines the practical effect of poverty alleviation in China from the perspective of the sense of gain of people getting out of poverty. Through the investigation and research of 1 518 farmers in 48 villages in Guangdong Province who have been out of poverty, it is found that their family’s per capita annual income continues to increase and is significantly higher than the known poverty alleviation income line, and the industrial poverty alleviation has a significant effect on income growth. Based on objective needs such as the number of the family labor force, the number of elderly people, and the number of students and children, most poverty alleviation households have consciously obtained poverty alleviation policy benefits that reflect objective opportunities. People who have been out of poverty have a higher sense of gain, and there is no difference due to the demographic characteristics of the surveyed individuals. The sense of gain is significantly negatively correlated with objective needs and positively correlated with objective gains. When the demand increases, the sense of gain will increase significantly. This means that the logic of targeted poverty alleviation based on demand-acquisition-satisfaction in the new era has practical effects. However, the sense of gain will be significantly lower when the objective gain is determined and the demands are increasing. Income has the greatest impact. Therefore, in the post-poverty era, it is necessary to continue to promote the development of rural industries, strengthen the vocational skills training for the labor force and support for rural education, so as to ensure and improve the sustainability of poverty alleviation quality from the external foundation, the internal motivation of adults and the intergenerational development potential.