中国健康与精神健康社会工作制度百年历史变迁与历史规律研究
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Study on Historical Changes and Laws of China’s Health and Mental Health Social Work System in Its Century-old History
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    摘要:

    1921年9月15—22日,新协和医学院开幕典礼具有划时代、里程碑、国际性、多样性的中国和世界历史意义,既标志中国现代西医教育和西医临床诊疗服务开端,又标志中国现代医院与医务、健康与精神健康社会工作实务体系建设元年,拉开中国现代健康与精神健康社会工作实务体系建设百年历史序幕。本文从制度社会史和历史制度主义视角,利用文献回顾、历史-比较研究、内容分析和理论建构等方法,首次将1921—2021年百年历史划分为四个时期,其中,1840—1920年是西医传入和医疗慈善、医疗救助和健康公益时期;1921—1949年是现代医院与医务、健康与精神健康社会工作实务体系奠基并迅猛发展时期;1950—1977年是社会学与专业社会工作实务中断停止、销声匿迹时期;1978—2021 年是中国现代医院与医务、健康与精神健康社会工作实务体系恢复重建、结构转型、全面发展,社会工作专业重新专业化、理论化、政策化、本土化和制度化的时期。每个历史时期均具有若干鲜明和突出的时代特征。目的是清晰描绘中国现代健康与精神健康社会工作实务体系建设百年历史变迁的总体图画。更重要的是,本文首次分析中国健康、精神健康社会工作实务体系发展影响因素与社会成因,首次全面、系统、历史、客观地总结中国健康、精神健康社会工作实务体系百年历史经验、教训和客观规律,旨在为实现第二个百年目标,为健康中国、法治中国和福利中国制度建设,为满足全民性、普惠性美好生活需要提供专业社工实务体系与现代社会福利制度智慧、规律。

    Abstract:

    The opening ceremony of the new Peking Union Medical College held on September 15 to 22, 1921, has an epoch-making, milestone, international, and diversified historical significance in China and the world. It not only marks the beginning of modern Western medicine education and Western medicine clinical diagnosis and treatment services in China, but also marks the first year of the construction of China’s modern hospital and medical, health and mental health social work practice system, kicking off the 100-year history of the construction of China’s social work practice system of modern health and mental health. From the perspective of institutional social history and historical institutionalism, this paper, for the first time, divides the century-old history from 1921 to 2021 into four periods by means of literature review, history-comparative study, content analysis and theoretical construction. With the introduction of Western medicine, the period from 1840 to 1920 was mainly for medical charity, medical assistance and health public welfare. From 1921 to 1949, the foundation and rapid development of the modern hospital and medical, health and mental health social work practice system were established. From 1950 to 1977, sociology and professional social work practice stopped and disappeared. From 1978 to 2021, China’s modern hospitals and medical, health and mental health social work practice system was restored, restructured, structurally transformed, and fully developed, and the social work profession return to specialized, theoretical, policy-based, localized, and institutionalized. Each historical period has several distinctive and prominent characteristics of the times. The purpose is to clearly depict the overall picture of the century-old historical changes in the construction of China’s social work practice system of modern health and mental health. More importantly, for the first time, this article analyzes the influencing factors and social causes of the development of China’s health and mental health social work practice system, and comprehensively, systematically, historically and objectively summarizes the century-old historical experience, lessons and laws of China’s health and mental health social work practice system. This study aims to provide a professional social work practice system, wisdom and law of modern social welfare system for the realization of the second Centenary Goal, healthy China, the rule of law in China and welfare China system construction, to meet the needs of the whole people and universal benefits of a better life.

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刘继同,左芙蓉.中国健康与精神健康社会工作制度百年历史变迁与历史规律研究[J].重庆工商大学社会科学版,2022,39(4):6-24

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  • 在线发布日期: 2022-07-15