The spatial econometrics method is used to analyze the increasing effect and spatial characteristics of rural human capital in western China. The results show that:(1) human capital including education human capital and health human capital has a significant spatial spillover effect on farmers’ income, and the spatial effect of education human capital is more significant; (2) agricultural product price index, urbanization level, agricultural modernization level and other factors have an important impact on farmers’ income in western China to a certain extent. Moreover, agricultural credit input is negatively related to farmers’ income increase due to the lack of a perfect agricultural capital formation mechanism in the rural market; (3) at different stages of economic development, the impact of human capital on farmers’ income has a significant double threshold effect. The marginal impact of educational human capital on the increase of farmers’ income presents a U-shaped relationship that first decreases and then increases. The marginal impact of healthy human capital on the increase of farmers’ income shows a continuous increase.