刘凯健.论袁水拍的“山歌”选择与都市经验*[J].重庆工商大学社会科学版,2020,37(1):106-113
论袁水拍的“山歌”选择与都市经验*
On Yuan Shuipai’s “Folk Song” Choice and Metropolitan Experience
  
DOI:
中文关键词:  袁水拍  山歌  都市  讽刺  歌谣
英文关键词:Yuan Shuipai  folk song  metropolis  irony  song
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刘凯健 北京大学 中文系北京 100871 
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中文摘要:
      袁水拍在20世纪40年代以笔名“马凡陀”发表了不少“山歌”作品,其预设读者是与他一同生活于重庆、上海或多或少接触着同样的都市新闻的市民们。这些具有讽刺意味的作品,既合乎一般市民们置身于社会不公现象时的发泄牢骚的心理,又使他们收获消遣娱乐的发笑机会,它们一方面能吸引市民读者和扩大读者群,另一方面又能锻炼乃至提升读者的社会批判意识。袁水拍在40年代集中而持续地利用歌谣形式进行“山歌”创作,既因其立足于文艺为大众服务的态度,也基于其曾用各种形式处理都市讽刺经验的诗歌尝试。相较而言,歌谣形式比自由形式能更亲和地表达讽刺意味,而且“山歌”写作也融入了袁水拍在形式层面讽刺都市的考虑。袁水拍虽采用歌谣形式,但他的“山歌”写作是在进行新诗实验。与其强调袁水拍的“山歌”写作是为新诗大众化道路增添了有效实践的说服力,不如强调他基于对具体历史经验的感受和判断,选择了一条适合于更容易和更高效地处理这些经验的艺术加工道路。袁水拍的“山歌”的成功,是都市经验、讽刺意味和歌谣形式相合适的结果,各种形式的新诗实验想获得成功,都需要根植于合适的具体的历史经验。
英文摘要:
      In the 1940s, Yuan Shuipai used the pen name “Ma Fantuo” to have published a lot of “folk song” works, his predicted readers were the urban residents who lived in Chongqing and Shanghai with him and who more or less had the same city news. These works with irony meaning are not only in accordance with the psychology of general city residents who whine for the unfair phenomena in the society but also make them have the opportunities laugh in their entertainment, on the one hand, these works can attract the readers of the city residents and expand readers group, on the other hand, these works can refine or even promote the socially criticizing ideology of the readers. Yuan Shuipai centralized and continued to make “folk song” creation by using song style in the 1940s because he had the attitude for using the art to serve the people and because he once tried to use all styles to deal with city irony experience. Comparatively, song style can more compatibly express irony meanings than free style, and the writing of “folk songs” integrates the consideration of Yuan Shuipai’s city irony on style level. Although he used the style of song, his writing of “ folk songs” conducted new poetry experiment. It is better to highlight his “folk songs” writing for adding convince force for the effective practice in new poet popularization than to emphasize his artistic processing road for him to have chosen a more easy and a more efficient processing method of these experiences based on his felling and decision on real historic experience. The success of his “folk songs” results from the combination of city experience, irony meaning and song style, the new poet experiments with any style need to root in suitable and real historic experience if they want to succeed.
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