林珏.美国制造业“重振”战略实施效果考察:成效与难点[J].重庆工商大学社会科学版,2020,37(1):12-23
美国制造业“重振”战略实施效果考察:成效与难点
The Effect of the “Revitalization”Strategy Implementation in American Manufacturing Industry:Effectiveness and Difficulties
  
DOI:
中文关键词:  美国制造业  重振制造业战略  实体经济  就业
英文关键词:American manufacturing  strategy of revitalizing manufacturing  real economy  employment
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林珏 上海财经大学 国际工商管理学院(商学院 
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中文摘要:
      自2009年美国政府提出“重振制造业”战略以来已经过去十年,数年来美国的制造业有了一定的发展,表现为:制造业增值规模正在逐步扩大,其中耐用消费品增值增长超过非耐用消费品;制造业成本正在下降,就业人数有所增加;高技术领域研发投入增多,产量增值比重增大;高科技领域已经成为外商主要投资领域;制造机构网络初见端倪。但当前美国制造业发展面临两大问题:一是劳动生产率提高遏制了制造业就业岗位的增加;二是制造业工资较高削弱了美国出口产品的竞争力。本文比较了奥巴马与特朗普在“重振制造业”战略上的区别,认为奥巴马政府提出的美国重振制造业战略中的一些做法值得我们借鉴或给予启示。比如,政、企、学结合的研发体制及投资模式;监管虚拟经济活动,着力发展实体经济的理念;鼓励传统工业基地通过技术创新和产业结构转型焕发生机的措施等。本文指出,上海正在贯彻“发展实体经济”的中央指示,上海实体经济的发展需要加快政府职能转变;重视科技创新中心建设;加大金融对实体经济的支撑力度;重视理工人才的培养。
英文摘要:
      It has been near ten years since the US government put forward “A Framework for Revitalizing American Manufacturing” in 2009. What is the effect of its implementation?This article has carried on the research on this.The paper argues that the manufacturing industry in the United States has developed over the past several years, it shows in:The value added scale of manufacturing industry is gradually expanding, in which the growth of durable goods is more than that of nondurable goods; Manufacturing costs are falling and its employment is increasing; R&D investment in high tech areas increased, the proportion of its value added in GDP increased; The high tech sector has become a major foreign investment area; Manufacturing networks began to emerge. Although the value added of America’s manufacturing ranks second in the world behind China, the proportion of value added manufacturing in the US exports is far greater than that in China. The paper also points out that the manufacturing industry in the United States faces two major problems: Firstly, higher labor productivity has curbed manufacturing jobs; Secondly, higher manufacturing wages have weakened the competitiveness of US exports. In addition, the new government put forward the“American First”policy of trade protectionism,which will also be retaliated by other countries, and thus affect the export of manufactured products made in the United States. This paper compares the difference between Obama and Trump in the strategy of“revitalizing the manufacturing”,it believed that some of the practices proposed by the Obama administration to revive the manufacturing strategy in the United States should be used for reference or inspiration. For example, to make the government, enterprises, schools combine R&D system and investment model; to supervise the activities of virtual economy and to focus on the concept of developing the real economy; to encourage the traditional industrial base through technological innovation and industrial restructuring revitalization measure; etc. This paper points out that Shanghai is carrying out the national instructions on the development of the real economy, to develop the real economy that needs: to speedup the transformation of government functions; to attach importance to the construction of scientific and technological innovation centers; to increase financial support for the real economy; and to pay attention to the cultivation of scientific and technological talents.
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