To build a unified national market, we must unify the urban and rural labor markets. The distinction of household registration strengthens the weak position of rural-urban migrants in the urban labor market, and the settlement of rural-urban migrants in the cities is beneficial to eliminating the urban-rural segregation of the labor market, so as to improve the employment quality of rural-urban migrants. However, the employment-enhancing effect of the change of household registration of rural-urban migrants still needs to be further studied. This paper argues that the settlement of rural-urban migrants in the cities has realized the transformation of the identity of “rural people-urban people”, which is conducive to improving their status in the urban labor market, thereby promoting the improvement of employment quality, but the adverse effects of the original household registration on their employment cannot be eliminated in the short term. Therefore, the employment quality of rural-urban migrants who have changed household registration (settle down in cities) (referred to as “rural-urban migrations” in this paper) is significantly higher than that of the rural-urban migrants without household registration change (referred to as “migrant workers” group in this paper), but there is still a certain gap with the local urban residents (“local citizens”). At the same time, the difference in employment quality between “the rural-urban migrations” and “migrant workers” is not only due to the change in household registration, but also the result of significant differences in labor ability endowment. Human capital is the key factor affecting the quality of labor employment, so the selective-transferring group with a higher human capital level has higher employment quality than the policy-transferring group. Using CGSS data in 2013, 2015, and 2017, the employment distribution of different groups was compared, and the multivariate Logit model was used to analyze the employment quality effect of household registration change and human capital. The results show that rural-urban migrants are significantly higher than migrant workers in terms of the probability of engaging in white-collar work, entering public-owned units, obtaining an indefinite labor contract, and the hourly wages of various types of work. This difference in employment quality is the result of the combined effect of the higher labor capacity endowment and the change of household registration in the “rural-urban migrants”. The change in household registration and the accumulation of human capital of rural-urban migrants both have a significant effect on improving the quality of employment. Therefore, the employment quality of the selective-transferring group with a higher level of human capital is significantly higher than that of the policy-transferring group. Compared with the existing literature, this paper incorporates three types of groups including rural-urban migrants, migrant workers and local citizens into a unified research framework, and divides rural-urban migrants into the selective-transferring group and the policy-transferring group, to compare and analyze the employment quality of each group. Meanwhile, this paper examines the employment quality effects of household registration change and human capital through the significant differences between rural-urban migrants and migrant workers, and also provides empirical evidence that settling down in urban areas will improve the quality of employment of rural-urban migrants. The research in this paper shows that the change of household registration by settling in cities has a certain role in promoting the employment quality of rural-urban migrants, but to further improve employment, it is necessary to continuously improve the labor ability endowment. Therefore, we should actively promote and incentivize rural-urban migrants to settle down in cities, and continuously improve the human capital level of migrant workers and the policy-transferring group.