The release of the No. 1 Central Document in 2013 promoted the rapid development of family farms in China, and also set off a boom in family farm research, which has continued to this day. The implementation of the rural revitalization strategy has brought new opportunities for the development of family farms. How to achieve high-quality development of family farms in the new era has raised new topics for family farm research. Therefore, it is necessary to sort out and summarize the existing literature on family farm research to provide inspiration and direction for further deepening and expanding family farm research. By reviewing and sorting out 382 papers with the title of “family farm” included in CSSCI, this paper summarizes the main research results of family farms from five aspects: the conceptual characteristics and status function, the reasons for formation and development conditions, development mode and management mode, moderate management scale and management efficiency (performance), the constraints and coping strategies. Specifically, (1) family farm is the main body of agricultural management between enterprises and ordinary farmers, which has both the characteristics of “family” and the attributes of “farm”; at present, family farms are the new force of new agricultural business entities and one of the main forces promoting agricultural modernization and rural revitalization. (2) The imbalance between institutional supply and institutional demand gave birth to family farms; the emergence of family farms in China is closely related to the rapid advancement of industrialization and urbanization, and institutional reform is a key factor in the formation mechanism of family farms; the sustainable development of family farms requires corresponding land transfer and new professional farmers cultivation system, agricultural socialization service system, market mechanism and government support, investment security and social security. (3) The basic national conditions of more people and less land determine that moderate scale management is the basic direction and main mode of the development of family farms in China; there are huge differences in resource conditions and development levels in different regions, and the practice of family farms has also formed a diversified development model and business model. (4) The scale of family farm operation should be “moderate”, and the standard of “moderation” has significant differences for different regions and different types of family farms; although the operating performance of family farms in China is obviously higher than that of ordinary farmers, the operating efficiency is generally not high, especially the overall low level of technical efficiency; the operating efficiency and performance of family farms are affected by factors such as the characteristics of farmers and their families, farm management methods and technical levels, operating environment and supporting social facilities, agricultural support policies and government subsidies. (5) The development of family farms in China still faces many constraints, such as, the quality of farmers is not high, the management ability is lacking, the scale or mode of the farm operation is improper, the investment is insufficient, the technical level is not high, the land property rights and circulation system needs to be improved, financing is more difficult, the agricultural socialization service system is not perfect, and the government support is not enough. Thus, reform and improvement should be carried out in terms of land transfer, farmland reform, agricultural socialization service system, farmer cultivation, financial support, and financial subsidies. Chinese scholars have conducted extensive and in-depth research on family farms, and produced a large number of fruitful research results, but there are still some problems that need to be further deepened and expanded. For example, there are too many cross-sectional analyses, and long-term tracking analysis is insufficient; there are too many analyses from the perspective of economics, but the multidisciplinary analysis is insufficient; there are too many domestic analyses, but the international comparative analysis is insufficient.