In the stage of high-quality economic development, improving the employment quality of migrant workers as soon as possible is an effective way to promote common prosperity. The refinement of industrial division of labor, the complexity of the employment environment and the diversification of individual development have made non-cognitive ability an important factor affecting the employment quality of workers, but most of the existing literature explores the relationship between the two based on certain dimensions of non-cognitive ability or some aspects of employment quality, and the research on the relationship between the two comprehensive variables of migrant workers’ non-cognitive ability and employment quality is even insufficient, and the relevant empirical research does not include the employment environment in the analysis framework. This paper believes that, like other workers, the improvement of migrant workers’ non-cognitive ability can promote the improvement of their employment quality, while the characteristics of urban foreign labor force make social inclusion have a significant impact on the employment quality of migrant workers, which is embodied in the fact that the increase of urban social tolerance will promote the improvement of the employment quality of migrant workers, and will strengthen the promotion effect of non-cognitive ability on the improvement of the employment quality of migrant workers. At the same time, with the increase in the complexity and extroversion of the work engaged by migrant workers, the influential effect of individual non-cognitive ability and urban social tolerance on the employment quality will also increase. On one hand, under the background of the economic and social evolution of increasing work complexity and extraversion, continuous improvement of migrant workers’ non-cognitive ability, and increasing urban social tolerance, the positive effect of individual non-cognitive ability and urban social tolerance on the employment quality of migrant workers, and the positive effect of urban social tolerance on the employment quality effect of non-cognitive abilities have gradually increased. On the other hand, the job complexity and extroversion of migrant workers in construction, manufacturing, and service industries (the three industries where migrant workers are relatively concentrated) have increased in turn, and thus the above effects also have increased sequentially. Empirical analysis based on the data of five surveys of China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) from 2010 to 2018 confirms the above views. Individual non-cognitive ability and urban social tolerance have a significant positive impact on the employment quality of migrant workers, and urban social tolerance has a positive moderating effect on the impact of non-cognitive ability on the employment quality of migrant workers. And these three positive effects all have a gradually increasing temporal trend, and they increase sequentially in the samples of construction, manufacturing and service industries. Compared with the existing literature, this paper mainly expands and deepens in the following two aspects. First, based on the fact that the employment quality effect of workers’ non-cognitive ability is more susceptible to the impact of the economic and social environment, an evaluation index system of three comprehensive variables of “non-cognitive ability”, “employment quality” and “social tolerance” is constructed, and the three variables are included in the same analysis framework to explore the employment quality effect of the employment environment from the perspective of urban social tolerance. Secondly, based on the influence of the characteristics of the work performed by migrant workers, the time trend and industry heterogeneity of the employment quality effect of non-cognitive ability and social tolerance are explored. The research in this paper reveals the important role of the improvement of non-cognitive ability and urban social tolerance in promoting migrant workers’ employment quality, as well as its time trend and industry heterogeneity, which will help migrant workers, employers and local governments to take more active measures to improve non-cognitive ability and social tolerance, thereby effectively promoting the improvement of migrant workers’ employment quality, and continuously promoting new urbanization and common prosperity.