Frontier enterprises improve their productivity through innovation, and the industry frontier productivity has also been increased. Meanwhile, the productivity spillover effect caused by the innovation diffusion of frontier enterprises and the productivity catch-up effect caused by the learning and imitation of non-frontier enterprises makes non-frontier enterprises have faster productivity growth than frontier enterprises. Therefore, in the process of increasing the overall productivity of enterprises, the exertion of late-comer advantages of late-comer enterprises will also make the enterprise’s productivity converge. However, corporate innovation behavior, productivity catch-up behavior, and productivity spillover effects are affected by many factors. For example, an increase in corporate tax burden will reduce corporate cash flow, which in turn affects the innovation input and productivity catch-up behavior of enterprises. Therefore, the existence, significance and specific performance of enterprise productivity convergence in economic reality are uncertain and need to be tested through empirical analysis. An analysis based on a sample of Chinese industrial enterprises from 1998 to 2015 shows that the productivity spillover effect of frontier enterprises and the productivity catch-up effect of non-frontier enterprises are significant, and the productivity convergence phenomenon is obvious; the increase in corporate tax burden will not only inhibit the growth of corporate productivity, but also weaken the productivity catch-up effect of non-frontier enterprises, which is not conducive to the convergence of corporate productivity; compared with income tax, the increase in value-added tax has a greater effect on hindering the productivity catch-up of enterprises; compared with non-R&D enterprises, large enterprises, state-owned enterprises and foreign-funded enterprises, the increase in tax burden has a greater retarding effect on the productivity catch-up of R&D enterprises, small and medium-sized enterprises, and private enterprises. Therefore, in deepening the supply-side structural reforms, on one hand, we must continue to implement tax and fee reduction policies to promote enterprise productivity growth and productivity convergence. On the other hand, we must further optimize the tax and fee reduction policies to make tax incentives become a catalyst for enterprises to catch up in productivity, rather than a maintenance agent for enterprises with low productivity.