杜文强.工业机器人应用促进了产业结构升级吗?——对2006—2016年中国284个地级市的实证检验[J].西部论坛,2022,32(1):97-110
工业机器人应用促进了产业结构升级吗?——对2006—2016年中国284个地级市的实证检验
Does the Application of Industrial Robots Promote the Upgrading of Industrial Structure?:An Empirical Test of 284 Prefecture-level Cities in China from 2006 to 2016
  
DOI:
中文关键词:  工业机器人应用  产业结构升级  人力资本  劳动技能  服务业需求  岗位创造效应
英文关键词:industrial robot application  upgrading of industrial structure  human capital  labor skills  service industry demand  job creation effect
基金项目:
作者单位
杜文强 北京大学 经济学院北京 100871 
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中文摘要:
      工业机器人的广泛应用不但可以提高制造业生产效率,促进工业升级,还会通过提高人力资本水平、增加服务业需求、创造第三产业岗位等路径推动地区产业结构的升级。采用2006—2016年中国284个地级市面板数据的分析表明:工业机器人安装密度和存量密度的提高均对城市产业结构高级化水平具有显著的正向影响,并可以通过人力资本提升效应、服务业需求效应和岗位创造效应促进城市产业结构升级;工业机器人应用对城市产业结构升级的促进效应存在区域、时间和城市异质性,对东部地区的促进作用比中西部地区更为明显,在2013年后的促进效应更显著,对高技能劳动力密集型城市的影响比低技能劳动力密集型城市更大。应继续大力扶持和发展机器人产业,促进工业机器人应用,尤其要加快中西部地区的工业机器人应用;积极推广职业教育和技能培训,不断提升劳动力的劳动技能,促进工业机器人应用与人力资本提升的良性循环。
英文摘要:
      The widespread application of industrial robots can not only improve the production efficiency of the manufacturing industry and promote industrial upgrading, but also promote the upgrading of the regional industrial structure by improving the level of human capital, increasing the demand for the service industry, and creating jobs in the tertiary industry. Based on the panel data of 284 prefecture-level cities in China from 2006 to 2016, the analysis shows that the increase in the installation density and stock density of industrial robots have a significant positive impact on the advanced level of urban industrial structure, and can promote the upgrading of urban industrial structure through the effect of human capital improvement, service industry demand effect and job creation effect. Moreover, the application of industrial robots has regional, time and urban heterogeneity in promoting the upgrading of urban industrial structure. The promotion effect on the eastern region is more obvious than the central and western regions, and the promotion effect after 2013 is more significant. The impact on high-skill labor-intensive cities is greater than that on low-skill labor-intensive cities. It is necessary to continue to vigorously support and develop the robotics industry, promote the application of industrial robots, especially in the central and western regions of industrial robots, actively promote vocational education and skill training, continuously improve the labor skills of the labor force, and promote the virtuous cycle of industrial robot application and human capital improvement.
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