曹文超,韩磊.产业集聚外部性、城市网络外部性与城市生产效率——基于中国285个城市和十大城市群的多地域尺度分析[J].西部论坛,2022,32(1):16-33
产业集聚外部性、城市网络外部性与城市生产效率——基于中国285个城市和十大城市群的多地域尺度分析
Industrial Agglomeration Externality, Urban Network Externality and Urban Production Efficiency: A Multi-regional Scale Analysis Based on 285 Cities and Ten Urban Agglomerations in China
  
DOI:
中文关键词:  城市网络外部性  MAR外部性  Jacobs外部性  城市生产效率  借用规模效应  集聚阴影效应
英文关键词:urban network externality  MAR externality  Jacobs externality  urban production efficiency  borrowed scale effect  agglomeration shadow effect
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作者单位
曹文超,韩磊 1.中共山东省委党校(山东行政学院) 新动能研究院山东 济南 2500142.中国社会科学院 农村发展研究所北京 100732 
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中文摘要:
      经济主体和经济活动在不同地理空间的集聚产生众多城市,城市之间的分工和经济联系形成城市网络。产业在城市的集聚可能带来集聚经济或集聚不经济,且专业化集聚与多样化集聚影响城市生产效率的机制不同,因而MAR外部性与Jacobs外部性对城市生产效率可能有不同的影响并表现出区域异质性;城市可以“借用”网络内其他城市经济集聚的外部性,但其生产资源也可能被“集聚”到其他城市,因而城市网络外部性对城市生产效率的影响具有“借用规模效应”和“集聚阴影效应”两种反向机制;城市间交通条件的改善有利于“借用规模效应”和“集聚阴影效应”的发挥,而产业功能互补性的增强会强化“借用规模效应”和弱化“集聚阴影效应”。以2003—2019年中国285个城市为样本的分析发现:在全国层面,MAR外部性与城市生产效率呈现倒U型关系,而Jacobs外部性对城市生产效率具有负向影响;城市网络外部性与城市生产效率显著负相关(“集聚阴影效应”强于“借用规模效应”),交通条件的改善会强化而城市功能互补性的提高会弱化这种负面效应。在城市群城市与非城市群城市层面,Jacobs外部性对城市群城市生产效率的影响呈现倒U型趋势,但对非城市群城市生产效率具有负向影响;城市网络外部性对城市群城市和非城市群城市生产效率均具有正向影响,且交通条件的改善和功能互补性的提高均具有正向调节作用。在十大城市群层面,产业集聚外部性和城市网络外部性对城市生产效率的影响表现出多样化的异质性。因此,应进一步强化城市间的产业分工,提高城市功能互补性;城市群发展要注重改善内部交通条件和产业分工,并完善一体化发展体制机制;非城市群城市应找准自身产业发展的优势和定位,与其他城市形成合理分工和功能互补,并改善交通通达条件。
英文摘要:
      The agglomeration of economic entities and economic activities in different geographic spaces produces numerous cities, and the division of labor and economic connections between cities form urban networks. Industrial agglomeration in cities may bring about agglomeration economy or agglomeration diseconomy, and specialized agglomeration and diversified agglomeration have different effects on urban production efficiency, so MAR externality and Jacobs externality may have different effects on urban production efficiency and show regional heterogeneity. A city can “borrow” the economic agglomeration externalities of other cities in the network, but its production resources may also be “concentrated” to other cities. Therefore, the impact of urban network externalities on urban production efficiency has two reverse mechanisms: “borrowing scale effect” and “agglomeration shadow effect”. The improvement of inter-city transportation conditions is conducive to the development of “borrowing scale effect” and “agglomeration shadow effect”, while the enhancement of industrial function complementarity will strengthen “borrowing scale effect” and weaken “agglomeration shadow effect”. Based on the analysis of 285 cities in China from 2003 to 2019, we find that at the national level, MAR externalities have an inverted U-shaped relationship with urban production efficiency, while Jacobs externalities have a negative impact on urban production efficiency. There is a significant negative correlation between urban network externalities and urban productivity (“agglomeration shadow effect” is stronger than “borrowing scale effect”), and the improvement of traffic conditions will strengthen the negative effect, while the improvement of urban functional complementarity will weaken the negative effect. At the level of urban agglomeration cities and non-urban agglomeration cities, the impact of Jacobs externality on the production efficiency of urban agglomeration cities presents an inverted U-shaped trend, but it has a negative impact on the production efficiency of non-urban agglomeration cities. The externality of urban network positively affects the production efficiency of urban agglomeration and non-urban agglomeration, and the improvement of transportation conditions and the functional complementarity will strengthen this positive impact. At the level of ten major urban agglomerations, the effects of industrial agglomeration externalities and urban network externalities on urban production efficiency show diverse heterogeneity. Therefore, the industrial division between cities should be further strengthened to improve the complementarity of urban functions; the development of urban agglomerations should focus on improving internal traffic and industrial division, and improve the integrated development system and mechanism; non-urban agglomeration cities should identify their industrial development advantages and positioning, form a reasonable division of labor and functional complementarity with other cities, and improve traffic accessibility.
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