谭文平.乡村治理基本单元的多层化体系建构——以三种农村集体资产改革为例[J].西部论坛,2021,31(3):97-109
乡村治理基本单元的多层化体系建构——以三种农村集体资产改革为例
Multi-hierarchical System Construction for the Basic Unit of Village Governance: Taking Three Rural Collective Assets Reform as an Example
  
DOI:
中文关键词:  乡村治理  基本治理单元  自然村  行政村  乡镇  村民自治  集体资产
英文关键词:village governance  basic governance unit  natural village  administrative village  village and town  villager autonomy  collective assets
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作者单位
谭文平 江西财经大学 马克思主义学院江西 南昌 330013 
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中文摘要:
      自治和行政是乡村治理的两大工具,两者不同的组合方式产生自治主导型、自治行政均衡型、行政主导型等不同的治理路径,进而形成自然村、行政村、乡镇等多层化基本治理单元体系。以三种有关农村集体资产的改革为例,集体资产产权分配改革宜选择自治主导型治理路径并以自然村为基本治理单元,集体经济收益分配改革宜选择自治行政均衡型治理路径并以行政村为基本治理单元,集体资产管理体制改革宜选择行政主导型治理路径并以乡镇为基本治理单元。江西余江的宅基地制度改革、安徽天长的集体资产股份权能改革、广东东莞的集体资产管理体制改革分别以自然村、行政村、乡镇为基本治理单元,均取得了较好的治理绩效。乡村治理基本单元的设置,应以兼具自治和行政双重职能的行政村为基点,基于治理事项的具体要求、各治理主体的利益关联及其治理能力和资源选择适宜的治理路径和基本治理单元,或下沉至自然村等,或提升充实行政村(能力和资源),或上升至乡镇等,形成多层化基本治理单元体系,并加强各基本治理单元的治理能力建设,有效提升治理效率和绩效,促进乡村治理体系和治理能力现代化。
英文摘要:
      Autonomy and administration are the two tools for village governance, the different combination methods of the two produce the different governance paths such as autonomy-oriented type, autonomy-administration balanced type, administration-oriented type and so on, and multi-hierarchical basic governance unit system is further formed such as natural village, administrative village and towns. Taking the relevant rural collective assets reform as an example, the property rights distribution reform of the collective assets should choose autonomy-oriented governance path and take a natural village as the basic governance unit, the collective economy earning distribution reform should choose autonomy-administration balanced type governance path and take an administrative village as the basic governance unit, and collective asset management system reform should choose administration-oriented governance path and take a village and town as the basic governance unit. The homestead system reform in Yujiang of Jiangxi Province, the collective asset stock right reform in Tianchang of Anhui Province, and the collective asset management system reform in Dongguan of Guangdong Province respectively take the natural village, the administrative village and the village and town as the basic governance unit and all achieve good governance performance. The setting of the basic unit for the village governance should take the administrative village with both autonomy and administration function as the basic point. On the basis of the requirement of governance items, the interests association of each governance subject and its governance capacity as well as its resources selection should choose suitable governance path and the basic governance unit, or go down to the natural village, or consolidate and enrich the administrative village, or go up to the town and so on so as to form multi-hierarchical basic governance unit system to effectively promote governance efficiency and performance and to boost the modernization of village governance system and governance capacity.
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