王彦芳.深度融入全球价值链会缩小还是扩大地区差距?——中间品前向关联与后向关联的反向影响[J].西部论坛,2021,31(3):1-16
深度融入全球价值链会缩小还是扩大地区差距?——中间品前向关联与后向关联的反向影响
Does Deep Integration into the Global Value Chain Narrow or Widen Regional Gaps?: Reverse Impacts of Forward and Backward Linkage of Intermediate Inputs
  
DOI:
中文关键词:  中间品贸易  前向关联  后向关联  地区差距  全球价值链  扩散效应  极化效应
英文关键词:intermediate trade  forward linkage  backward linkage  regional gap  global value chain  diffusion effect  polarization effect
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作者单位
王彦芳 江南大学 商学院江苏 无锡 214122 
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中文摘要:
      地区生产通过中间品进口(前向关联)融入全球价值链带来的技术溢出效应可以促进经济活动的空间扩散,进而有利于缩小地区差距;而地区生产通过中间品出口(后向关联)融入全球价值链通常会促使生产要素向发达地区集聚,进而产生经济极化效应并扩大地区差距;中间品前向关联与后向关联对地区差距的反向作用受到地区经济贸易水平和结构以及制度环境的制约和影响,因而在经济实践中表现出地区、贸易伙伴、制度环境等多方面的异质性。以2000—2013年中国30个省级区域为研究样本,采用各地区地级市夜间灯光亮度的基尼系数衡量地区差距,运用投入产出模型测度中间品前向和后向关联指数,分析表明:整体上看,中间品前向关联有利于缩小地区差距,而中间品后向关联促使地区差距扩大;前向关联的经济扩散效应主要体现在东部省份,且得益于从OECD国家进口中间品;后向关联的经济极化效应则只在中部省份显著存在,且主要源自对非OECD国家出口中间品;产品和要素市场化程度越高的地区中间品前向关联缩小地区差距的效应越明显。因此,应优化中间品贸易的产品结构和空间布局,适当增加从发达国家的高质量中间品进口,推动中间品出口扩张从“集约边际”向“广延边际”转变,加快产品和要素市场化改革进程,以形成深度融入全球价值链与区域经济协调发展的联动机制,构建双循环新发展格局。
英文摘要:
      The technological spillover effect of the integration of the regional production through intermediate import (forward linkage) into global value chain can boost the space diffusion of economic activities, and is further conducive to narrow the regional gap, however, the integration of the regional production through intermediate export (backward linkage) into the global value chain can usually promote production factors to accumulate towards the developed areas, further produce economic polarization effect and enlarge regional gap. The reverse effect of the forward linkage and backward linkage of the intermediate on the regional gap is restricted and influenced by the regional economic and trade level and structure and institutional environment, so it expresses the heterogeneity in many perspectives such as regions, trade partners, institutional environment and so on. By taking China’s 30 provincial-level regions during 2000—2013 as research samples, by using Gini coefficient of prefecture-level cities of different regions’ nighttime light to measure regional gap, by using input and output model to test the forward and backward linkage index of the intermediate, the analysis shows that, as a whole, the forward linkage of the intermediate is conducive to narrow the regional gap, however, the backward linkage of the intermediate boosts the enlargement of the regional gap. The economic diffusion effect of forward linkage is mainly embodied in eastern provinces and is benefited from the intermediate import from OECD countries, however, the economic polarization effect of backward linkage only exists in the central provinces and mainly comes from the intermediate export to non-OECD countries, the higher the marketization degree of the products and factors of the regions is, the more significant the effect of the forward linkage of the intermediate on narrowing the regional gap is. Therefore, we should optimize the product structure and space layout of the intermediate trade, appropriately increase the import of the high quality intermediate from the developed countries, push forward the transformation of the intermediate export expansion from “intensive margin” to “extensive margin”, accelerate the marketization progress of the products and factors, form the linkage mechanism of deep integration into global value chain and regional economy coordinated development, and construct double-circulation new development pattern.
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