韩文龙,朱杰.农村林地“三权”分置的实现方式与改革深化——对三个典型案例的比较与启示[J].西部论坛,2021,31(1):101-112
农村林地“三权”分置的实现方式与改革深化——对三个典型案例的比较与启示
Implementation Method and Reform Deepening for Three-Right Separation of Rural Forest Land: Comparison of Three Typical Cases and Enlightenment
  
DOI:
中文关键词:  林地“三权”分置  经营权流转  经营主体  股份制家庭林场  林地股份合作社  林业共营制  职业经理人  林地经营方式
英文关键词:forestland "three rights" separation  management right transfer  management main body  stock family farm  ’ woodland stock cooperative  mutual management of forestland  professional manager  woodland management method
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作者单位
韩文龙,朱杰 西南财经大学 经济学院四川 成都 611130 
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中文摘要:
      林地“三权”分置是农村土地产权制度改革的重要组成部分。自新中国成立以来,林地产权制度经历了五个阶段的制度变迁,当前的林地“三权”分置改革还处于探索深化中。林地“三权”分置的核心要义是在落实集体所有权、稳定林农承包权的前提下放活林地经营权,改革实践中林地产权制度设计的差异主要在于经营权的归属主体不同,进而产生不同的林地经营模式,即形成不同的“三权”分置实现方式。对股份制家庭林场、林地股份合作社+现代企业、林业共营制三种模式的典型案例分析表明,林地“三权”分置在明晰林地产权权属和权能的基础上,促进和改善了林地经营权的流转,进而优化了林地资源配置,转变了林业经营方式,在促进农村集体经济发展和林农增收的同时,也促进了林业高质量发展和生态环境改善;林地“三权”分置实现方式的差异主要体现在经营主体和经营方式的不同上,不同的实现方式适用于不同的地区条件和改革环境。深化林地“三权”分置改革,不但要改进和创新“三权”分置实现方式,积极探索放活林地经营权的多种有效形式,还要进一步完善林地产权制度,并不断优化林地“三权”分置的改革环境和配套措施。
英文摘要:
      Woodland property right system reform is an important part of rural land property right system reform. Since the founding of new China, China's woodland property rights system has undergone five stages of institutional changes. At present, the reform of "three-right" separation in forestland is in the preliminary exploration stage. The core of “three-right” separation of the woodland is to give free rein to woodland management right under the premise of the implementation of collective ownership and the stability of contracted right of woodland farmers. The difference in woodland right system design in reform practice mainly lies in different owning main bodies for management right, further produces different management modes for the woodland, i.e., different implementation methods for “three-right” separation are produced. The typical cases analysis based on three models such as stock system of family woodland farm, woodland stock cooperative+modern enterprise and mutual management system for forestland shows that “three-right” separation of the woodland boosts and improves the transfer of the woodland management right on the basis of clarifying the ownership of the woodland property right, further optimizes the woodland resources allocation, changes management method of the woodland and boosts the high quality development of forest industry and ecological environment improvement while promoting rural collective economy development and the income growth of woodland farmers. The difference in the implementation methods for “three-right” separation of the woodland mainly is embodied in the difference in the main body of its management, and different implementation methods fit for different regional conditions and reform environments. The deepening of “three-right” separation reform for the woodland should not only improve and innovate the implementation methods for “three-right” separation to actively explore multiple effective methods for giving free rein to the woodland management rights but also further perfect property system to continuously optimize reform environment and the matched measures for the woodland “three-right” separation.
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