许经勇.改革开放以来中国经济制度变迁回顾与思考[J].西部论坛,2021,31(1):1-11
改革开放以来中国经济制度变迁回顾与思考
On the Gradualness of the Evolution of China’s Economic Institution since the Reform and Opening-up
  
DOI:
中文关键词:  经济制度变迁  改革开放  计划经济  市场经济  市场主体  市场体系  市场规则  市场经济体制
英文关键词:evolution of economic institution  reform and opening-up  plan economy  market economy  market subject  market system  market rules  market economy system
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作者单位
许经勇 厦门大学 经济学院福建 厦门 361005 
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中文摘要:
      中国特色社会主义基本经济制度是改革开放后一系列经济制度变迁的结果。中国的经济制度变迁是解放和发展生产力的要求,具有明确的市场化方向,并采取了渐进式、系统化推进策略以缓解改革阻力:以农村经济制度变迁为突破口,尔后逐步推进城市经济制度变迁;从制度外增量改革入手,尔后逐步推进制度内存量改革;从政策性调整入手,尔后逐步推进制度创新;从局部性制度创新入手,尔后逐步扩大到全局性制度创新;从塑造真正的市场主体到构建完整的市场体系再到制定有效的市场规则,建立并不断完善社会主义市场经济体制。同时,中国的经济制度变迁坚持了党的领导,坚持了社会主义道路,坚持了人民主体地位,党和政府对家庭承包经营等自下而上的需求诱致型制度变迁进行了充分肯定、积极推广和科学优化,并自上而下地推动了城市改革和国有企业改革等系统化的供给主导型制度变迁。因此,中国的经济制度变迁不但实现了从传统计划经济制度到社会主义市场经济制度的转变,而且还实现了持续高速的经济增长奇迹,极大地解放和发展了生产力。要持续推进中国特色社会主义市场经济制度变迁,促进国内经济高质量发展和对外经贸高水平高层次发展,推动形成国内国际双循环新发展格局;还应将中国市场经济的实践优势上升为制度优势和理论优势,为其他国家的经济制度变迁提供借鉴,并为世界经济运行机制的完善提供中国方案。
英文摘要:
      The basic socialist economic institutions with Chinese characteristics are the result of the evolutions of a series of economic institutions after the reform and opening-up. The evolution of economic institutions of China is the requirement for the liberation and development of productivity, has obvious market-oriented direction and uses gradualness and systemization promotion strategy to mitigate the resistance. The socialist market economy system is continuously set up and perfected by taking rural economic institution evolution as the sally port and then gradually promoting urban economic institution evolution, by increment reform initiation outside the institution and then gradually starting stock reform in the institution, by initiating policy adjustment and then gradually boosting institutional innovation, by local institutional innovation initiation and then gradually extending to global institutional innovation and by molding real market main bodies and then constructing overall market system and then making effective market rules. Meanwhile, China’s economic institution evolution sticks to the Party’s leadership, socialist road and people’s main body position, and the Party and government sufficiently confirm the institutional changes caused by the demand from the bottom to the top such as family contracted business and so on, actively generalize and scientifically optimize the institutions, and promote the systematic supply-leading institution evolution such as urban reform, state-owned enterprise reform and so on from the top to the bottom. Thus, China’s economic institution evolution not only realizes the change from traditional plan economy institution to socialist market economy institution but also creates continuous rapid economic growth miracle, which greatly liberate and develop the productivity. China should continuously boost the change of socialist market economy institution with Chinese characteristics, promote the high-quality development of domestic economy and the high-level development of foreign trade, boost the formation of domestic and international double-circulation new development pattern, furthermore, raise the practical advantage of China’s market economy to institutional advantage and theoretical advantage to provide the reference for the economic institution evolution of other countries and to provide China Scheme for the perfecting of the world economy operation mechanism.
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