袁冬梅,马梦姣.外资进入影响行业工资差距的路径与异质性研究——来自中国服务业的经验证据[J].西部论坛,2020,30(2):73-83
外资进入影响行业工资差距的路径与异质性研究——来自中国服务业的经验证据
Research on Path and Heterogeneity of the Impact of Foreign Investment on Industry Wage Gap: Evidence from Chinese Service
  
DOI:
中文关键词:  外商直接投资  行业工资差距  劳动力需求效应  技术溢出效应,就业结构  相对劳动生产率  外商投资目的  外资进入方式
英文关键词:foreign direct investment  industrial wage gap  labor demand effect  technology spillover effect  employment structure  relative labor productivity  investment motive  entrance mode
基金项目:
作者单位
袁冬梅,马梦姣 湖南师范大学 商学院湖南 长沙 410081 
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中文摘要:
      外商直接投资(FDI)可以通过劳动力需求效应和技术溢出效应改变东道国的劳动力就业结构和行业相对劳动生产率,进而影响行业工资差距,并且这种影响具有不确定性;由于投资动机和进入方式的不同,FDI对行业工资差距的影响具有异质性并表现为地区差异。基于中国服务业的经验分析发现:外资进入通过增加低工资行业的相对就业规模和提升高工资行业的相对劳动生产率扩大了行业工资差距,适应中国低技能劳动力丰裕而高技能劳动力相对稀缺的劳动力市场条件;在以垂直型和合资型FDI为主的地区外资进入具有显著的扩大行业工资差距效应,而在以水平型和独资型FDI为主的地区这一影响并不明显。因此,应努力提高劳动力人力资本水平并充分保障低技能劳动力的权益,积极鼓励和引导水平型FDI进入并适度减少垂直型FDI的引入,持续增强企业的技术吸收能力并不断缩小技术差距,进而在高效利用外资的同时缩小行业工资差距。
英文摘要:
      Foreign direct investment(FDI)can influence the employment structure and industrial relative productivity of host country by labor demand effect and technology spillover effect, and then influence the industry wage gap which is uncertain. Because investment motivation and entry mode are different, the impact of vertical FDI and horizontal FDI as well as single-proprietorship mode and joint venture on industrial wage gap has heterogeneity and regional difference. Based on the empirical analysis of China service industry, FDI enlarge the industry wage gap by increasing the relative employment scale of low wage industries and by promoting the relative labor productivity of high wage industries, which conform to the trend of the abundance of low-skilled labor and the shortage of skilled labor. FDI can make the industry wage larger in the region that mainly with the vertical FDI and the joint venture mode FDI, while the region mainly with the horizontal FDI and single-proprietorship mode FDI has no effect. As a result, China should make efforts to improve human capital level of labors, sufficiently protect the interests of low-skilled labor, actively encourage and guide the horizontal FDI and single-proprietorship mode FDI, meanwhile moderately reduce the vertical FDI and the joint venture mode FDI, continue to improve the technical absorption capacity of the enterprises to narrow the technical gap, and then decrease the industry wage gap while making use of foreign capital efficiently.
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