许光伟.恩格斯对《资本论》方法的贡献——纪念恩格斯诞辰200周年[J].西部论坛,2020,30(2):11-25
恩格斯对《资本论》方法的贡献——纪念恩格斯诞辰200周年
Engels’ Contribution to Method of Das Kapital:Commemorating the 200th Anniversary of Engels’ Birthday
  
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中文关键词:  马克思  恩格斯  《资本论》  辩证法  科学  自然过程  历史过程
英文关键词:Marx  Engels  Das Kapital  dialectic method of analysis  science  natural process  historic process
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作者单位
许光伟 江西财经大学 经济学院江西 南昌 330013 
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中文摘要:
      恩格斯对待《资本论》的态度是将其看做科学作品和历史作品的统一,坚持由“科学品性”提升“历史品格”——这就是对唯物主义路径的着重阐发;恩格斯进而希望通过自己的扎实辛勤工作,全方位展示他和马克思共同的理论思维——辩证法,用以“伟大逻辑”的建构。要之,恩格斯的工作和《资本论》方法关联的线索有三:一是以《自然辩证法》研究和《资本论》商品章“工作呼应”,希图在马克思主义理论中彻底肃清“蒲鲁东主义”;二是坚持《资本论》的由“自然过程”向“历史过程”进军,对其总体方法论和理论逻辑主张——自然历史过程——进行学理性阐发,又主要归结于发生学的工作逻辑;三是恩格斯晚年的历史唯物主义思考,以耄耋之年推动“《资本论》增补”工作,进行巨大的认识推进。换言之,从广义的工作角度看,恩格斯是尝试把《资本论》当作马克思自身要完成而未能完成的“《辩证法》”(即唯物辩证法)的一个全面预演。经由恩格斯的唯物史观化的“辩证法”努力,《资本论》逐渐成为指导科学思考和进行意识形态战斗的武器,这为《资本论》“俄国化”和“中国化”打下了牢靠的基础。
英文摘要:
      Engels’ attitude to Das Kapital was to regard it as the unity of scientific work and historic work, upheld to raise “historic character” from “scientific morality”, which is the explanation of materialism path. Furthermore, Engels overall demonstrated his dialectic method of analysis, the common ideology with Marx, to construct “great logic” by his hard work. There are three clues between Engels’ work and the method of Das Kapital, firstly he associated the research on Natural Dialectics with the chapter of “commodification” in Das Kapital, hoping to completely eliminate “Proudongism” in Marxism theory, then he insisted on Das Kapital from “natural process” to “historic process”, theoretically interpreted it from total methodology and theoretical logic to natural historic process based on the working logic of embryology. The third part is Engels’ consideration on historic materialism during his late years, which promoted supplement to Das Kapital and made great cognitive advance. As a result, he made great epistemology boost. In other words, from extensive angle, Engels tried to view Das Kapital as an overall preview of the “Dialectic Method of Analysis”(Dialectics of Materialism), which Marx should have finished by himself. Based on Engels’ hard work on “dialectic method of analysis” with materialism, Das Kapital gradually becomes the weapon to guide scientific thinking and the fighting weapon in ideology, which lays the stable foundation for “Russia localization” and “China localization” of Das Kapital.
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