周春芳,苏群,常雪.自雇农民工的经济同化强于受雇农民工吗?——农民工自我雇佣的决定因素与高质量经济同化[J].西部论坛,2020,30(1):50-63
自雇农民工的经济同化强于受雇农民工吗?——农民工自我雇佣的决定因素与高质量经济同化
Is the Economic Assimilation of Self-employed Migrant Workers Stronger Than Employed Migrant Workers?: The Decisive Factors and High-quality Economic Assimilation of Self-employment of Migrant Workers
  
DOI:
中文关键词:  自我雇佣  农民工  城镇职工  经济同化  人力资本  社会资本  新型城镇化  农民工市民化
英文关键词:self-employment  migrant workers  urban workers  economic assimilation  human capital  social capital  new-style urbanization  migrant worker citizenization
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作者单位
周春芳,苏群,常雪 1.江苏省社会科学院 农村发展研究所江苏 南京 2100042.南京农业大学 经济管理学院江苏 南京 2100953.南京财经大学 经济学院江苏 南京 210023 
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中文摘要:
      新时代的新型城镇化对农民工市民化提出了高质量要求,农民工与城镇职工高质量的经济同化是其社会融合和心理融合的物质基础。利用CLDS2014和CLDS2016调查数据的分析表明:人力资本较低、迁移时间较长、社会资本较多的农民工自我雇佣的可能性较大;自雇农民工相比受雇农民工具有明显的经济优势,较容易实现与城镇职工(平均水平)的经济同化,是新型城镇化的重要力量;同时,由于职业间的收入差距大于户籍间的收入差距,促进农民工由受雇到自雇的职业转换能在一定程度上缩小城乡收入差距。但从高质量经济同化看:自雇农民工不但初始收入低于自雇城镇职工,且收入增速相对较慢,与自雇城镇职工的收入差距扩大,难以实现高质量经济同化;而受雇农民工的初始收入虽然也低于受雇城镇职工,但收入增速相对较快,与受雇城镇职工的收入差距缩小,具有经济同化的趋势。自雇农民工难以实现高质量经济同化,原因在于人力资本水平较低、社会资本质量不高以及城镇劳动力市场的不完善等导致其大多从事被动的生存型创业。为此,公共政策应通过提升农民工人力资本水平和社会资本质量以及完善劳动力市场体制机制等,鼓励农民工积极自主地进行机会型创业,并对自雇农民工和受雇农民工实行差别化的市民化促进政策。
英文摘要:
      he new-style urbanization at new era raises high-quality requirement for the citizenization of migrant workers, and the high-quality economic assimilation between the migrant workers and urban workers is the physical basis for their social integration and psychological integration. The analysis using CLDS2014 and CLDS 2016 survey data shows that the possibility of self-employment of the migrant workers with low human capital, long migrating time and much social capital is bigger, that comparing with the employed migrant workers, the self-employed migrant workers have significant economic advantage, are easier to realize economic assimilation with urban workers (average level), and are important group for new-style urbanization. Because the income gap between occupations is bigger than that between household registers, meanwhile, this kind of gap boosts the change of the migrant workers from employed to self-employed, which can narrow the gap between urban area and rural area in China. From the perspective of high-quality economic assimilation, the initial income of self-employed migrant workers is lower than that of urban workers, their income growth rate is slow, as a result, the gap between self-employed migrant workers and urban employed workers is enlarged, the high-quality economic assimilation is difficult to be realized. However, the initial income of employed migrant workers is also lower than urban employed workers, but their income growth rate is faster, the income gap between them and urban employed workers is narrowing, which have the trend of economic assimilation. Self-employed migrant workers are difficult to realize high-quality economic assimilation, which result from lower human capital level, low social capital quality, unperfected urban labor market and so on, and most of them conduct passive survival-style entrepreneurship. Based on that, the public policy should encourage the migrant workers to actively and independently conduct the opportunity-style entrepreneurship, and should use different citizenization policies for self-employed migrant workers and employed migrant workers by raising human capital level and social capital quality of the migrant workers and by perfecting market system and mechanism of labor force and so on.
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