高晨曦.马克思的服务理论适用于当代服务业分析吗?——消费过程中国民收入的再分配与神秘化[J].西部论坛,2019,29(4):39-52
马克思的服务理论适用于当代服务业分析吗?——消费过程中国民收入的再分配与神秘化
Can Marx’s Service Theory Suit the Analysis of Contemporary Service Industry: Redistribution and Mystery of National Income in the Process of Consumption
  
DOI:
中文关键词:  服务  使用价值  实物租赁  服务商品  国民收入
英文关键词:service  usage value  real thing rent  service commodity  national income
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作者单位
高晨曦 一桥大学 经济学研究科日本 东京 186-8601 
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中文摘要:
      本文从“服务是什么”、“服务提供的资本主义形态”、“围绕服务提供的国民收入的分配和再分配”三个方面出发,探讨马克思的服务论和服务劳动论是否适用于当代服务业分析。首先,马克思把服务看作使用价值的有用作用,看作消费过程而非直接生产过程的范畴,因此把“服务”视作商品、“精神劳动”产品的观点与庸俗经济学并无二致。学界应区分“服务”和“提供服务的劳动”的概念。其次,从资本主义制度下消费者“购买服务”时的经济关系来看,资本主义下提供服务的形式是将消费资料和服务工人劳动力的短期使用权以实物形式租赁给消费者。在提供服务前,消费者就已经支付包含服务资本利润在内的租赁费用。在这个过程中,处于资本-雇佣劳动关系下的消费者将受到“二次剥削”。最后,本文将服务提供部门视作非生产部门,将其附加在再生产公式中,通过模拟社会再生产以及货币的预付和回流过程,揭示购买“服务”行为背后国民收入的分配和再分配的规律。
英文摘要:
      Based on three viewpoints such as that what is service?, capitalist form provided by service and distribution and redistribution of national income about service, this paper discusses Marx’s service theory and whether the service labor theory suits the analysis of contemporary service industry. Firstly, Marx regarded the service as useful role of usage value, and as consumption process but not as the category of direct production process, therefore, those viewpoints which regard service as commodity, spirit work product are the same as vulgar economics. The academic circle should distinguish the concept of service from the work providing service. Secondly, based on economic relation for consumers‘ buying service under capitalist system, the form for providing service under capitalist system is to rent consumption materials and the short-term using right of the workers providing the service as real things to the consumers. Before providing the service, the sonsumers have paid the renting fees including the profit of service capital. In this process, the consumers under the relation of capital-employed work will be exploited two times. Finally, this paper regards the departments providing the service as non-production departments, annexes the departments into reproduction formula and uses the simulation of social reproduction, payment in adbance of currency and its refluence process to reveal the law of distribution and redistribution of national income behind service purchase behavior.
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